R In Physik Hauptnavigation
Formelzeichen für die universelle Gaskonstante. Physikalische Konstanten sind in der untenstehenden Tabelle nicht aufgeführt. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 SI-Basisgrößen und -einheiten; 2 Geometrie. Die Physik Formelsammlung enthält wichtige Formeln der Bereiche Mechanik, Wärme, elektrischer Widerstand, R, (ohm)=V A-1=kg m2s-3A-2, Ohm. Energie. R, auch r, Einheitenzeichen für die Einheit Röntgen der Ionendosis. Das ABC der Physik. Buchstabe Florian Karsten – Physik ZPG III. Seite 1 von 6 R el. Widerstand. Größe. Georg Simon Ohm wählte den Buchstaben R.
Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy. Das ABC der Physik. Buchstabe Florian Karsten – Physik ZPG III. Seite 1 von 6 R el. Widerstand. Größe. Georg Simon Ohm wählte den Buchstaben R. Physikalische Konstanten sind in der untenstehenden Tabelle nicht aufgeführt. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 SI-Basisgrößen und -einheiten; 2 Geometrie.
Theorists invoke these ideas in hopes of solving particular problems with existing theories. They then explore the consequences of these ideas and work toward making testable predictions.
Experimental physics expands, and is expanded by, engineering and technology. Experimental physicists involved in basic research design and perform experiments with equipment such as particle accelerators and lasers , whereas those involved in applied research often work in industry developing technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging MRI and transistors.
Feynman has noted that experimentalists may seek areas that have not been explored well by theorists. Physics covers a wide range of phenomena , from elementary particles such as quarks, neutrinos, and electrons to the largest superclusters of galaxies.
Included in these phenomena are the most basic objects composing all other things. Therefore, physics is sometimes called the " fundamental science ".
Thus, physics aims to both connect the things observable to humans to root causes , and then connect these causes together.
For example, the ancient Chinese observed that certain rocks lodestone and magnetite were attracted to one another by an invisible force.
This effect was later called magnetism , which was first rigorously studied in the 17th century. But even before the Chinese discovered magnetism, the ancient Greeks knew of other objects such as amber , that when rubbed with fur would cause a similar invisible attraction between the two.
Thus, physics had come to understand two observations of nature in terms of some root cause electricity and magnetism. However, further work in the 19th century revealed that these two forces were just two different aspects of one force— electromagnetism.
This process of "unifying" forces continues today, and electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force are now considered to be two aspects of the electroweak interaction.
Physics hopes to find an ultimate reason theory of everything for why nature is as it is see section Current research below for more information.
Contemporary research in physics can be broadly divided into nuclear and particle physics ; condensed matter physics ; atomic, molecular, and optical physics ; astrophysics ; and applied physics.
Some physics departments also support physics education research and physics outreach. Since the 20th century, the individual fields of physics have become increasingly specialised, and today most physicists work in a single field for their entire careers.
The major fields of physics, along with their subfields and the theories and concepts they employ, are shown in the following table.
Particle physics is the study of the elementary constituents of matter and energy and the interactions between them. The field is also called "high-energy physics" because many elementary particles do not occur naturally but are created only during high-energy collisions of other particles.
Currently, the interactions of elementary particles and fields are described by the Standard Model. Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei.
The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology, but the research has provided application in many fields, including those in nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging , ion implantation in materials engineering , and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.
Atomic , molecular , and optical physics AMO is the study of matter —matter and light —matter interactions on the scale of single atoms and molecules.
The three areas are grouped together because of their interrelationships, the similarity of methods used, and the commonality of their relevant energy scales.
All three areas include both classical , semi-classical and quantum treatments; they can treat their subject from a microscopic view in contrast to a macroscopic view.
Atomic physics studies the electron shells of atoms. Current research focuses on activities in quantum control, cooling and trapping of atoms and ions,    low-temperature collision dynamics and the effects of electron correlation on structure and dynamics.
Atomic physics is influenced by the nucleus see hyperfine splitting , but intra-nuclear phenomena such as fission and fusion are considered part of nuclear physics.
Molecular physics focuses on multi-atomic structures and their internal and external interactions with matter and light.
Optical physics is distinct from optics in that it tends to focus not on the control of classical light fields by macroscopic objects but on the fundamental properties of optical fields and their interactions with matter in the microscopic realm.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids , which arise from the bonding by way of the electromagnetic force between atoms.
Condensed matter physics is the largest field of contemporary physics. Historically, condensed matter physics grew out of solid-state physics , which is now considered one of its main subfields.
Astrophysics and astronomy are the application of the theories and methods of physics to the study of stellar structure , stellar evolution , the origin of the Solar System, and related problems of cosmology.
Because astrophysics is a broad subject, astrophysicists typically apply many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics.
The discovery by Karl Jansky in that radio signals were emitted by celestial bodies initiated the science of radio astronomy. Most recently, the frontiers of astronomy have been expanded by space exploration.
Perturbations and interference from the earth's atmosphere make space-based observations necessary for infrared , ultraviolet , gamma-ray , and X-ray astronomy.
Physical cosmology is the study of the formation and evolution of the universe on its largest scales. Albert Einstein's theory of relativity plays a central role in all modern cosmological theories.
In the early 20th century, Hubble 's discovery that the universe is expanding, as shown by the Hubble diagram , prompted rival explanations known as the steady state universe and the Big Bang.
The Big Bang was confirmed by the success of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in The Big Bang model rests on two theoretical pillars: Albert Einstein's general relativity and the cosmological principle.
Numerous possibilities and discoveries are anticipated to emerge from new data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope over the upcoming decade and vastly revise or clarify existing models of the universe.
IBEX is already yielding new astrophysical discoveries: "No one knows what is creating the ENA energetic neutral atoms ribbon" along the termination shock of the solar wind , "but everyone agrees that it means the textbook picture of the heliosphere —in which the Solar System's enveloping pocket filled with the solar wind's charged particles is plowing through the onrushing 'galactic wind' of the interstellar medium in the shape of a comet—is wrong.
In condensed matter physics, an important unsolved theoretical problem is that of high-temperature superconductivity.
In particle physics, the first pieces of experimental evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model have begun to appear.
Foremost among these are indications that neutrinos have non-zero mass. These experimental results appear to have solved the long-standing solar neutrino problem , and the physics of massive neutrinos remains an area of active theoretical and experimental research.
The Large Hadron Collider has already found the Higgs boson , but future research aims to prove or disprove the supersymmetry , which extends the Standard Model of particle physics.
Research on the nature of the major mysteries of dark matter and dark energy is also currently ongoing. Theoretical attempts to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity into a single theory of quantum gravity , a program ongoing for over half a century, have not yet been decisively resolved.
The current leading candidates are M-theory , superstring theory and loop quantum gravity. Many astronomical and cosmological phenomena have yet to be satisfactorily explained, including the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays , the baryon asymmetry , the accelerating expansion of the universe and the anomalous rotation rates of galaxies.
Although much progress has been made in high-energy, quantum , and astronomical physics, many everyday phenomena involving complexity ,  chaos ,  or turbulence  are still poorly understood.
Complex problems that seem like they could be solved by a clever application of dynamics and mechanics remain unsolved; examples include the formation of sandpiles, nodes in trickling water, the shape of water droplets, mechanisms of surface tension catastrophes , and self-sorting in shaken heterogeneous collections.
These complex phenomena have received growing attention since the s for several reasons, including the availability of modern mathematical methods and computers, which enabled complex systems to be modeled in new ways.
Complex physics has become part of increasingly interdisciplinary research, as exemplified by the study of turbulence in aerodynamics and the observation of pattern formation in biological systems.
I am an old man now, and when I die and go to heaven there are two matters on which I hope for enlightenment. One is quantum electrodynamics, and the other is the turbulent motion of fluids.
And about the former I am rather optimistic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the field of science. For other uses, see Physics disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Physical science. Study of the fundamental properties of matter and energy. Main article: History of physics.
Main article: History of astronomy. Main article: Natural philosophy. Main article: Classical physics. Main article: Modern physics.
See also: History of special relativity and History of quantum mechanics. Main article: Philosophy of physics. Further information: Branches of physics and Outline of physics.
Manifold dynamics : Schrödinger and Klein—Gordon equations. Main article: Applied physics. Main articles: Theoretical physics and Experimental physics.
Main articles: Particle physics and Nuclear physics. Main article: Atomic, molecular, and optical physics. Main article: Condensed matter physics.
Main articles: Astrophysics and Physical cosmology. Further information: List of unsolved problems in physics. Physics portal.
Glossary of physics Index of physics articles Lists of physics equations List of important publications in physics List of physicists Relationship between mathematics and physics Timeline of fundamental physics discoveries Earth science Neurophysics Psychophysics Science tourism.
However, the term "universe" may also be used in slightly different contextual senses, denoting concepts such as the cosmos or the philosophical world.
For example, the atom of nineteenth-century physics was denigrated by some, including Ernst Mach 's critique of Ludwig Boltzmann 's formulation of statistical mechanics.
By the end of World War II, the atom was no longer deemed hypothetical. The same might be said for arXiv. Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 1 November Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans.
Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics.
You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.
About Education. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 15 April Two New Sciences.
And as to the first, I greatly doubt that Aristotle ever tested by experiment whether it be true that two stones, one weighing ten times as much as the other, if allowed to fall, at the same instant, from a height of, say, cubits, would so differ in speed that when the heavier had reached the ground, the other would not have fallen more than 10 cubits.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Archived from the original on 7 April February Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Journal of Elasticity.
Archived PDF from the original on 18 April Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 31 July Acoustical Society of America.
Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 21 May Inspired by Pythagoras, he founded his Academy in Athens in BC, where he stressed mathematics as a way of understanding more about reality.
In particular, he was convinced that geometry was the key to unlocking the secrets of the universe. The sign above the Academy entrance read: 'Let no-one ignorant of geometry enter here.
I mean the universe, but we cannot understand it if we do not first learn the language and grasp the symbols in which it is written.
This book is written in the mathematical language, and the symbols are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word of it, and without which one wanders in vain through a dark labyrinth.
Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 30 January Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 31 March Bibcode : Natur.
Is the field entering a crisis and, if so, what should we do about it? Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.
June Archived from the original on 21 April Max Planck Institute for Physics. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 22 October Intermediate Electromagnetic Theory.
World Scientific. Hutchinson Radius. Archived from the original on 28 July American Physical Society. Archived from the original on 29 August Retrieved 18 October Institute of Physics.
Archived from the original on 14 November MIT Department of Physics. Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 21 February Archived from the original on 1 March Modern Condensed Matter Physics.
Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 12 September Princeton University, Department of Physics. Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 15 October University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 14 October Nasa: Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 13 January Nature Physics.
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Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: the science of the world around us. Archived from the original on 4 November Aaboe, A.
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Archived from the original on 5 August The Feynman Lectures on Physics. The Character of Physical Law. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics.
Bibcode : AnRFM Free Press. Bibcode : qqep. AIP Conference Proceedings. Bibcode : AIPC.. New York: Cambridge University Press.
The Nature of Space and Time. Physics for Dummies. Bibcode : pfd.. Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you.
The Oxford Companion to Philosophy 1 ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Binocular Vision and Stereopsis.
Drehmoment Kraftmoment. Dynmeter dynm Kilopondmeter kpm. Torsionsmoment , Einspannmoment , Biegemoment. Intensität , flächenbezogene Leistungsdichte.
Normalspannung Zug- oder Druckspannung. Dehnung , relative Längenänderung. Schiebung , Scherung. Scheinwiderstand , Impedanz. Scheinleitwert , Admittanz.
Magnetische Permeabilität. AW, Aw Gilbert Gb. Ladungszahl eines Ions , Wertigkeit eines Stoffes B. Strahlungsintensität Strahlungsstärke.